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1.     Nano-coatings in general

1.1   What chemical raw material is used to make SiNanO coatings?
        SiO (silicon dioxide) - the primary ingredient of glass.

1.2.  Are SiNanO coatings dangerous or harmful to the environment?
        No, they are safe for food and environmentally friendly.
        SiO is an inert substance that surrounds us in nature. It is thus a "basic element" in nature.

1.3.  How are the strong anti-stick properties and hydrophobia created?
        The contained functional group leads to the formation of an extremely low surface energy on the substrate
        surface. These layers are characterized by very good hydro and Oleophobic finishes and anti-stick effects.

1.4.  Are the coatings breathable?
        Yes!

1.5.  How can it be that a permanent coating can hold on elastic surfaces like textiles without breaking?
        The SiO layer on the substrate surface is so thin (100 nanometers) that elasticity is guaranteed
        without changing the look, feel or other properties of the textile.

1.6.  Why is the term Nano-"sealing" actually wrong?
        A sealing always means an airtight coating of the substrate. But SiO coatings are breathable.

1.7.  Is the name "Nano" protected?
        No.  Unfortunately, manufacturers of low-quality and out-dated technologies are also trying to
        ride the "Nano" wave. Nano is only a unit of measurement. Layer thicknesses below 100-200 nm
        are normally referred to as Nano technology. Caution: There are many companies that write "Nano"
        on their products that have nothing to do with SiO or TiO.

1.8.  What is the difference between the different quality sectors?
        The portion of active components in the formulation. These are responsible for the beading
        behaviour and for abrasion resistance on certain surfaces.

1.9.  Are there health risks?
        No. In their hardened state, SiNanO coatings are even safe in food. The water-based systems can
        be applied anywhere without concern. For solvent-based systems, we recommend an exhaust hood
        for spray applications.

1.10.Are SiNanO products environmentally friendly?
        Yes! No hazardous substances are created during production. Nano products also create enormous cost
        savings in the field of cleaning and the use of chemical cleaners.

1.11.Do SiNanO products conform to REACH?
        Our technology partner in Germany is an original formulator (downstream user) of the recipes for
        all its suppliers of base chemicals (substances).  It has ensured that the raw materials for the
        applications of the products were registered in the REACH database. As long as the products are
        used for the purpose specified by us, the registration in the REACH database is available.
1.12.What form of spray cans are allowed?
        Water-based products: Pump and aerosol sprays.  Ethanol-based products: only pump sprays.
        As most products are acidic, we recommend making sure that the spring is made of plastic or stainless steel.

1.13.Do I need to pay attention to the weather when I want to apply a coating outside?
        Water-based products should not be used below 2°C. It should not be raining during application.

1.14.What is the drying time for Nano coatings? Can it be accelerated?
        Storage stable - after seconds; water stable:- after complete drying of the solvent in the product;
        abrasion and chemical stable - after 24 hours. We recommend a drying time of 24 hours before any
        tests are conducted. The drying time can be accelerated by heat (150°C).

2.     Storage and handling

2.1.  How long do the SiNanO products last in the container?
        Unopened containers can normally be stored for 6 months; however, it has been found that no product
        deterioration occurs even after 1-2 years - if stored in ideal conditions.

2.2.  What constitutes safe handling during filling?
        Some products are ethanol-based and thus hazardous materials (UN 1993), packaging group 2.
        All areas of filling must thus be explosion protected. No smoking;  be careful with fire and open flames.

2.6.  Handling of open containers
        Close containers as quickly as possible after filling.

2.7.  Equipment when handling chemicals
        The main SiNanO products are not harmful to health. Nonetheless, we recommend wearing gloves when
        handling chemicals.

2.8.  What container sizes are available?
        Normal packaging units are 50ml and 100ml spray bottles, 1 litre bottles, 5 litre and 20 litre containers.
        Bulk purchases can also be provided in 200 litre drums and 1000 litre IBC containers.  For large amounts of
        hazardous materials, 60 litres can be delivered via air cargo.

3.     Glass/ceramics

3.1.  How long is functionality guaranteed?
        Since the coatings are UV-stable, functionality is possible over longer periods of time (beyond 10 years).
        Prerequisites are:  No abrasion; No use of strong chemicals for cleaning.  The German manufacturer
        guarantees functionality for 10 years.

3.2.  How does the coating handle abrasion or chemicals?
        Nanoflex® coatings are characterized by strong abrasion and chemical resistance.
        Chemical resistance: pH value 1-12.5 Abrasion resistance on glass: after 10,000 wiper cycles performance
        will be reduced by 10-20%

3.3.  What applications does SiNanO recommend?
        Shower cubicles, sinks, toilets, solar panels, mirrors, windows, car windows, hot houses, etc.

3.4.  Is the coating food-safe?
        Yes, as confirmed by a CBA certificate.

3.5.  How long before the coating is stable after application?
        The water resistance is guaranteed seconds after application. Packaging/storage of the substrate can even
         be started right after application. Abrasion and chemical resistance should first be tested after 24 hours
         since a post-crosslinking of the product takes place.

3.6.  Does the coating impact the visual appearance?
        No! Because of the small layer thickness (100 nanometres), there is no impact on visual appearance or feel
        of the substrate.

3.7.  Does the coating impact the UV irradiation on solar panels?
        No! Because of the small layer thickness (100 nanometres), there is no impact on UV irradiation.

3.8.  Can the coating be reapplied?
        Yes, in the case of damage e.g. through abrasion, it can be reapplied like an initial application.

3.9.  Can two coats be applied?
        No, the 2nd coating will not adhere to the 1st coat!

3.10.How much is used per m˛?
        Industrially: 10-15 ml / m˛;  Manually: 5-10 ml / m˛

3.11.What cleansers can be used to clean the substrate before application?
        Any type, as long as all cleanser residues are removed prior to applying the SiNanO coating.

3.12.What cleansers can be used to clean the substrate after application?
        We recommend pH-neutral cleansers (also those containing teniacide).

3.13.The beading effect is not working all of the sudden.
        The coating is probably dirty.  Dirt particles on the coating prevent beading.
        Just clean and the effect will return.

3.14.After applying to my car windshield, there is no beading effect.
        Was your car washed before application?  It could be that cleanser residue or silicon oil was on the windshield
        during coating. In this case, a Nano product cannot adhere.  Workaround: Clean with an abrasive cleaner
        such as ceric oxide and reapply.

3.15.What are the main advantages of a Nano-glass/ceramic coating compared to competing products?
        Permanence; Chemical and abrasion resistance; UV stability; low m˛ price.
        (consumption is only 5-10 ml per m˛).

3.16.Streaks are visible after application by hand.
        These streaks represent material excess. For this reason, we recommend polishing with a dry and clean
        cloth until the surface is completely dry.

3.17.I only noticed these streaks after 24 hours
        Just re-polish the coating with a little bit of coating - until it is completely dry. This will remove the streaks.

3.18.A glass/ceramic coating protects against what contamination?
        A glass/ceramic coating generally protects against all contamination. It prevents permanent bonding of the
        contaminant on the glass surface. Coated substrates are thus easier to clean. Please Note: In the case of
        particularly thick contaminants, such as dried toothpaste residue in the sink, the upper layers of the
        toothpaste ("toothpaste on toothpaste") must first be removed before the actual easy-to-clean effect can
        be detected ("toothpaste on coating").

4.     Mineral (stone) substrates

4.1.  How long is functionality guaranteed?
        As the coatings are UV-stable, functionality is possible over longer periods of time (beyond 10 years).
        Prerequisites are:  No abrasion; No use of strong chemicals for cleaning. The German manufacturer normally
        guarantees functionality for 10 years.

4.2.  How does the coating handle abrasion or chemicals?
        Nanoflex® coatings are characterized by strong abrasion- and chemical-resistance. Chemical resistance: pH
        value 1-12.5 Abrasion resistance on mineral substrates depend on the resistance of the substrate. Principle:
        If the surface is destroyed, the coating is also destroyed.

4.3.  What applications does SiNanO recommend?
        Facades, monument protection, bridges, concrete blocks, terra cotta, cobblestones, bathroom tiles.

4.4.  Is the coating food-safe?
        Yes, as confirmed by an CBA certificate.

4.5.  How long does it take the coating to cure after application?
       The water resistance is guaranteed after complete drying. Packaging/storage of the substrate can even be
        started right after application. Abrasion and chemical resistance should first be tested after 24 hours since
        a post-crosslinking of the product takes place.

4.6.  Does the coating impact the visual appearance?
        No.  Due to the small layer thickness (100 nanometres), there is no impact on visual appearance or feel of
        the substrate.

4.7.  Can I apply a new wall colour to the facade after a Nano-coating?
        Yes. The hydrophobic properties impact the contact of the colour on the wall but only slightly.
        We recommend applying the paint using a roller.

4.8.  Can the coating be reapplied?
        Yes, in the case of damage e.g. through abrasion, it can be reapplied like an initial application.

4.9.  Can two coats be applied?
        Yes, e.g. in order to ensure that no spots were missed. It must be coated wet-on-wet, i.e. before drying
        of the substrate.

4.10. How much is used per m˛?
         Between 30 and 200 ml per m˛ - depending on the absorbency of the substrate.

4.11. What cleansers can be used to clean the substrate before application?
         For mineral substrates, we do not recommend the use of cleansers. A thorough cleaning with a pressure
         washer (distance 30 cm) is however allowed.

4.12. What cleansers can be used to clean the substrate after application?
         Here also only cleaning with a pressure washer.

4.13. The beading effect is not working all of the sudden.
         The coating is probably dirty.  Dirt particles on the coating prevent beading.
         Just clean with a pressure washer and the effect will return.

4.14. After applying to a mineral surface, there is no beading effect.
         The surface was probably already treated with another product.  Check  if the surface is a high density
         surface (non-porous), then the next higher quality sector of the product may need to be selected.

4.15. What are the main advantages of a Nano-coating for mineral substrates compared to competing products?
         Permanence; UV stability; chemical resistance.

4.16. Does the product protect mineral substrates from acids?
         No! This is not possible with the current status of the technology.  There are developments in progress
         that will be able to provide this in due course.

4.17. Can a plastered or painted facade be coated?
         In general: If the main component of the paint is mineral: yes! If not: no!

4.18. A coating for mineral substrates protects against what adhesions?
         A coating for mineral substrates protects against deposits from air pollutants, prevents the formation of
         mosses through hydrophobia. Large portions of dirt are washed off by rain - but a small percentage remains.

4.19. Does the coating provide thermal insulation on walls?
         It was not generally developed for thermal insulation. But the coating protects the wall from moisture, which
         reduces the insulation degree of the wall. Thus, the coating receives the natural insulation rate of the wall.

4.20. What coating is available to provide thermal insulation on walls?
        There is a specific range of coatings, manufactured  in the USA, available to insulate walls.  It has a different
         composition, but excellent thermal insulation properties.  For more information see the section XXXXXXXXX

4.21. How high is the contact angle of a drop on the coating?
        The contact angle as a measure of hydrophobia is dependent on the coated substrate. Example: Sandstone:
         between 125° and 134°

5.     Textiles

5.1.  How long is functionality guaranteed?
        As the coatings are UV-stable, functionality is possible over longer periods of time (beyond 10 years).
        Prerequisites are: - No abrasion (unlikely with textiles) - No use of strong chemicals for cleaning.  Principle: If
        the fibre is damaged, the coating is also damaged.

5.2.  How does the coating handle detergents and is it machine washable?
        Test result with conventional detergent (e.g. Tide®): Nanoflex® Textil: 30-40 washings (washing machine)
        Nanoflex® Tex2: 40-60 washings (washing machine).

5.3.  What applications does SiNanO recommend?
        Any type of textiles (cotton - silk - suede - synthetic threads, etc.)

5.4.  Is the coating food-safe?
        Yes, as confirmed by an CBA certificate

5.5.  How quickly is the coating stable after application?
        The water resistance is guaranteed after complete drying. Packaging/storage of the substrate can even be
        started right after application. Abrasion and chemical resistance should first be tested after 24 hours since a
        post-crosslinking of the product takes place.

5.6.  Does the coating impact the visual appearance or feel?
        No! Because of the small layer thickness (100 nanometres), there is no impact on visual appearance or feel of
        the substrate.

5.7.  Can I print on a textile after a Nano-coating?
        Yes

5.8.  Can the coating be reapplied?
        Yes, in the case of damage e.g. through abrasion, it can be reapplied like an initial application.

5.9.  Can two coats be applied?
        Yes, e.g. in order to ensure that no spots were missed. It must be coated wet-on-wet, i.e. before drying
        of the substrate.

5.10.How much is used per m˛?
        Between 25 and 100 ml per m˛ - 10 ml/m˛ per mm thickness of the textile.

5.11.What cleansers can be used to clean the substrate after application?
        Conventional detergents.

5.12.The beading effect is not working all of the sudden.
        Is there detergent residue on the textile after washing? Teniacide interfere with the beading effect.
        Rinse with clean water.

5.13.After applying to a textile, there is no beading effect.
        Detergent residue probably prevented the adhesion of the textile coating on the thread.
        Rinse the washed textiles with clear water before coating.

5.14. What are the main advantages of a Nano-coating for textiles compared to competing products?
         Permanence; UV stability; washing machine and detergent resistance; breathability.

5.15. Can a printed textile be coated?
         yes!

5.16. A coating for textiles protects against what adhesions?
         It will provide protection against wet contaminants. It also prevents the penetration of dirt into the threads
         and improves the easy dissolving of dirt particles.

6.     Plastics or painted surfaces

        oSee: Glass/ceramics

        oSpecial questions:

6.1.  After coating a plastic, you can't tell the difference to an uncoated substrate.
        Additives that trigger a beading effect can be used in the production of plastics. In this case, they should be
        removed through plasma treatment. After a longer period of time, these additives break down on their own
        since they are usually not UV-stable. Principle: It is better to coat an older plastic than a new plastic.

6.2.  Can I also coat car paint with Plexiclean VP 12?
        Yes! We recommend an application using a conventional polishing machine.

6.3.  Can I also coat aluminium wheels with Plexiclean VP 12?
        Yes!

6.4.  Can I also coat stainless steel surfaces with Plexiclean VP 12?
        Yes!